Gate 2019 Application Form:The Indian Institute of Science (IISc) and seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs at Bombay, Guwahati, Kharagpur, Delhi, Kanpur, Madras, and Roorkee) jointly conducts Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering every year. After qualifying this exam you will get admission into higher education (M.Tech./Ph.D.) in any of the IIT, IISc and any other recognized University/Institute or Laboratory in India.
Gate is the national and as well as the international level exam.Other than India its also conducted in countries like Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and the United Arab Emirates. The goal of organizing GATE exam is to give the chance to deserving applicants.
Gate 2019 Important Dates (Tentative)
Contents
 0.1 Gate 2019 Important Dates (Tentative)
 0.2 Points you must note for Gate 2019
 0.3 Gate 2019 Eligibility Criteria
 0.4 Eligibility Criteria for International Applicants
 0.5 Gate Registration Fee:
 0.6 Gate Virtual Calculator:
 0.7 Gate 2019 correction Application Form
 0.8 Gate 2019 Admit Card
 0.9 Gate 2019 Examination Pattern:
 0.10 Gate 2019 types of questions
 0.11 Marking Scheme
 0.12 Gate 2019 paper codes are given in table please check:
 0.13 Gate 2019 syllabus
 0.14 Gate 2019 Scorecard
 1 GATE for International Candidates
 2 Essential Documents for GATE 2019 Counselling Process
 3 GATE Syllabus & Exam Pattern
Events  Dates (Tentative) 
Gate 2019 Online Application Form  September 2018 
Last date for Online Application  October 2018 
Corrections in Application Form  IInd week of November 2018 
Due date to request for change in Examination Centre City  November 2018 
Admit Card Availability  January 2019 
GATE 2019 Examination Date Online CBT  February 2019 
Answer Key Release  Within a few days after examination 
Result Declaration  March 2019 
Scorecard Download  Last weekend of May 2019 
Counseling Starts from  the Second week of April 2019 
Points you must note for Gate 2019
 Gate is an Online computerbased test (CBT) which contains Multiple choice questions (MCQ). Virtual Calculator will be provided by GATE during your examination.
 No one is allowed to sit in Examination with any of electronic gadgets, physical calculator, mobile phone, and wrist watches.
 You can be randomly checked any time through Biometric information (Photograph and Fingerprints) or may be captured before exam starts.
 If you are appearing for Gate 2019 don’t miss Pre Gate Preparations.
 Financial assistance is also offered to all qualified applicants from MHRD or Other Government agencies to pursue your masters and direct doctoral program in relevant study areas.
 Also, you will get the chance to get employed in many PSU’s like National Thermal Power Corporation, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Power Grid Corporation and Indian Oil Corporation Limited etc.
Gate 2019 Eligibility Criteria
Check your eligibility in the table given below:
Required qualification from affiliated University or institute  Qualifying Degree Discription  Degree Status  Passing Year 
B.Arch  You must hold 5years bachelor’s degree in Architecture  You must be Pursuing final year examination or completed  2019 
B.Tech/B.E./B.Pharm 


M.A./M. Sc./MCA orequivalent  You must have Master’s degree in Science/Computer Applications/ Mathematics/Statistics/ or equivalent  
B.Sc. Research/B.S.  You must have 4years Bachelor’s degree in Science (postdiploma or after 10+2)  
Int. M.Sc/Int. B.S.M.S.  You should have Integrated M.Sc. or Five years integrated B. S./M. S. program  
Int. M.E/M.Tech(PostB.Sc.)  4years PostBSc Integrated Master’s degree programs in Engineering / Technology  Presently in 2nd/3rd/4th year or completed  2010 
Int. M.E./M.Tech or Dual Degree (after Diploma or 10+2)  5years Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering/Technology  Currently in 4th/5th year or completed  2019 
Professional Society Examination equivalent to B.Tech/B.E./B.Arch  B.E/B.Tech/B.Arch equivalent examinations of Professional Societies, recognized by MHRD/UPSC/AICTE (e.g., AMIE by Institution of EngineersIndia, AMICE by the Institute of Civil EngineersIndia)  Completed section A or equivalent of such professional courses 
Eligibility Criteria for International Applicants
 Applicants from Bangladesh, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Ethiopia and the United Arab Emirates must have completed or pursued a final year of Bachelors degree program in Engineering/Technology. OR
 Applicants may be pursuing post graduate degree in any of the Science subjects.
Gate Registration Fee:
You have to pay your application fee only through online method i.e by using Net banking, debit card or echallan. Fee once paid will not be refunded.
Category  Application Fee 
SC/ST/PwD Applicants  Rs. 750/ 
Women Applicants  Rs. 750/ 
All Other Applicants  Rs. 1500/ 
For International Applicants  US$ 50 
Gate Virtual Calculator:
 The online calculator is called virtual calculator, Gate provides this application for calculation during the exam. It makes easy and saves the time to carry functions and operations for tough question or required questions.
 No physical calculators are allowed in the examination hall. Only you have to use a virtual calculator to solve your Numerical questions.
Gate 2019 correction Application Form
If you want to do modification or correction in your application form, it can be done only after submission of your application form. If you find any error occurred in your application form then you will have to write an email subjecting “Correction in data (Enrollment Number)” along with the documented proof.
You can only correct or Modify below given
 DOB
 Name of Parent/Guardian
 Status from Gen to OBC and OBC to General
 Have you graduated with the above degree?
 Name of Applicant
 Year of Qualifying Degree
Gate 2019 Admit Card
 You will be able to download your Gate Admit Card only through official website of gate tentatively in the month of January 2019. Please note that admit cards will not be sent to any one individually by post or email. You have to bring a colored printout of Admit card to the Examination Center. Also, you have to bring valid photo ID with your admit card.
 If you are International applicant you must have valid passport/College ID/Government issued ID.
Gate 2019 Examination Pattern:
The Gate examination pattern will be announced soon by IIT Roorkee and it covers complete details about question distribution and pattern, nature of the test papers, the number of papers, marking scheme etc. Exam Pattern will help you in Gate Preparation to crack Gate exam 2019.
Read below the following points which will help you for your Gate Preparation
 There will be total 23 papers in Gate 2019 which will be conducted tentatively in the month of February 2019. A single applicant can appear only one paper at a single time.
 Single question paper of Gate 2019 exam will contain 65 questions carrying 100 marks single. You have to complete your question paper with in 3 hours.
 All the questions will be Multiple choices (MCQ) and numerical answer type (NAT).
 The exam will be conducted ONLINE Computer Based Test (CBT) mode.
 You will be given pad for rough work which must be returned back to the authority.
 After completion of three hours, the window will automatically close.
Gate 2019 types of questions
 Numerical Answer Questions:
 The virtual calculator can be used to solve your questions, it saves your time.
 Each question carries 1 0r 2 marks
 No choice will be given for these types of questions.
 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ):
 These types of questions are having a choice with four answers you have to choose one.
 Every correct answer will carry 1 or 2 marks each.
Marking Scheme
 Each question paper will have total 65 questions for 100 marks in total.
 Every question paper consists of necessary section i.e general aptitude with 10 questions carrying 15 marks.
 Question paper bearing codes PE, CH, CS, EC, EE, PI, TF, AE, AG, BT, CE, IN, ME, MN and MT which will be compulsory in Engineering Mathematics section covering 15% of the total marks. And subject paper will cover remaining 70%.
 Question papers having codes GG, PH, AR, CY, EY, MA, and XL covering 85% of the total marks.
 Please note that there will be negative marking for wrong answers in MCQ sections.
Gate 2019 paper codes are given in table please check:
Paper  Code  Paper  Code 
Aerospace Engineering  AE  Geology and Geophysics  GG 
Agricultural Engineering  AG  Instrumentation Engineering  IN 
Architecture and Planning  AR  Mathematics  MA 
Biotechnology  BT  Mechanical Engineering  ME 
Civil Engineering  CE  Mining Engineering  MN 
Chemical Engineering  CH  Metallurgical Engineering  MT 
Computer Science and Information Technology  CS  Petroleum Engineering  PE 
Physics  PH  
Chemistry  CY  Production and Industrial Engineering  PI 
Electronics and Communication Engineering  EC  Textile Engineering and Fibre Science  TF 
Electrical Engineering  EE  Engineering Sciences  XE 
Ecology and Evolution  EY  Life Sciences  XL 
Gate 2019 syllabus
Gate conducts 23 papers, for each paper syllabus is different, you have to cover each and every topic given in Pdf given below for AE, AR, BT, CE, CH, AG, PH, PI, TF, CS, GG, IN, MA, ME, MN, CY, EC, EE, EY, XE, MT, PE and XL.
To read more about Gate 2019 Syllabus. Click Here
Gate 2019 Scorecard
Once the result is declsred, you are requested to download your scorecard tentatively in the month of March and may 2019 through the GOAPS portal of the gate. If you nedd a soft copy of your score card you can take by paying Rs 500/.
GATE for International Candidates
The Gate 2019 Exam will be also held for international candidates in their respective country Nepal, Ethiopia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and United Arab Emirates (U.A.E).
GATE 2019 Counselling Procedure
Step 1: The seats will be alloted on the basis of options filled by pupils and merit list. Once the saets are allotted, you have to pay the chair acceptance charges and report on the date and time specified by the jurisdiction.
Step 2: Allotment of Chair, Seat Acceptance fee payment and Reporting:
If you have obtained the confirmation letter from the official website, you should report to the college including certificates & all the original documents for entrance.
Step 3: Online Registration, Choice Filling, and Choice Locking process:
First step involves your registration. Then pay the registration fees that is applicable and you need to register yourself. On the effective payment of registration fee, applicants will be permitted to fill their choices of preferred programmes. You are advised to lock your choices that were stuffed at the time of the counseling process, after filling with the preference the choice filling. The GATE CCMT Counselling is an entry procedure which is conducted by other and NITs funded institutions. Counselling will be scheduled after the result declaration.The GATE counselling process is rigorously based on the GATE 2019 score card. Steps involve from the procedure are:
Measure 3: Entry to Allotted Institute
After chair allotment is done, by remitting the payment of chair verification fee candidates are required to finish the seat confirmation process. Following the payment of chair confirmation fee, candidates were able to download the seat verification letter.
Essential Documents for GATE 2019 Counselling Process
 Proof of Provisional Seat allotment (Provisional Seat Allotment letter)
 Date of Birth Certificate (DOB certificate)
 Marksheet of 12th Class Pass
 Mark sheet /score card of qualifying examination (for all semester).
 Original GATE 2019 score card
 Passport size coloured photograph
 Category certificate if applicable (if valid)
 Seat acceptance fee proof
 Personal Photo Identity Proof (Photo ID proof)
 GATE 2019 Admit card.
GATE Syllabus & Exam Pattern
GATE 2019 Syllabus
GATE exam syllabus comprises of 23 papers.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of General Aptitude (GA)
 Verbal Ability: English grammar, critical reasoning, instructions, and verbal deduction.
 Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical reasoning numerical estimation and data interpretation
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Aerospace Engineering (AE)
The AE topics divided into two categories: core topics (including 90% questions) & special topics (including 10% remaining questions).
Section 1 (Engineering Mathematics):
 Core Topics:Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Differential Equations.
 Special Topics: Numerical methods for linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Numerical integration, Fourier series, Laplace Transforms and differentiation.
Section 2 (Flight Mechanics):
 Core Topics: Basics, Static stability & Airplane performance.
 Special Topics: Dynamic stability: Euler angles, stability & control derivatives, Equations of motion, decoupling of longitudinal,longitudinal modes & lateraldirectional dynamics lateraldirectional modes.
Section 3 (Space Dynamics):
 Core Topics: Determination of trajectory Central force motion, and orbital period in simple cases.
 Special Topics: Orbit transfer, inplane and outofplane.
Section 4 (Aerodynamics):
 Core Topics:Airfoils and wings, Compressible Flows & Basic Fluid Mechanics,
 Special Topics: Elementary ideas of viscous flows counting boundary layers, Wind Tunnel Testing: Measurement and visualization techniques.
Section 5 (Structures):
 Core Topics: Strength of Materials, Structural Dynamics & Flight vehicle structures
 Special Topics: Vibration of beams, Theory of elasticity: Airy’s stress function, Equilibrium and compatibility equations.
Section 6 (Propulsion):
 Core Topics: Basics, Axial compressors, Axial turbines, Thermodynamics of aircraft engines, Centrifugal compressor & Rocket propulsion.
 Special Topics: No Special Topics.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Agricultural Engineering (AG)
Section 1 (Engineering Mathematics):
 Linear Algebra, Probability and Statistics, Calculus, Vector Calculus, Differential Equations, & Numerical Methods.
Section 2 (Farm Machinery):
 Farm Machinery & Machine Design.
Section 3 (Farm Power):
 Sources of Power, Tractors and Power tillers & Farm Power.
Section 4 (Soil and Water Conservation Engineering):
 Fluid Mechanics, Soil and Water Erosion, Soil Mechanics, Surveying and Leveling, Hydrology, & Watershed Management.
Section 5 (Irrigation and Drainage Engineering):
 SoilWaterPlant Relationship, Groundwater Hydrology & Wells and Pumps, Irrigation Water Conveyance and Application Methods& Agricultural Drainage.
Section 6 (Agricultural Processing Engineering):
 Drying, Processing and Byproduct Utilization, Size Reduction and Conveying, & Storage Systems.
Section 7 (Dairy and Food Engineering):
 Preservation of Food & Heat and Mass Transfer
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Architecture and Planning (AR)
Construction and Management, Environmental Planning and Design, Architecture and Design, Building Materials, Urban Design, Building and Structures, Planning Techniques and Management, Urban Planning and Housing, Services, Infrastructure, and Transportation.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Biotechnology (BT)
Engineering Mathematics, Plant and Animal Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, General Biotechnology (Biochemistry, Microbiology, Cell Biology, Molecular Biology and Genetics, Analytical Techniques, Immunology, Bioinformatics), Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Chemical Engineering (CH)
Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations, Engineering Mathematics, (Linear Algebra, Calculus, Numerical Methods), Heat Transfer, Mass Transfer, Differential equations, Complex variables, Probability and Statistics, Instrumentation and Process Control, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Plant Design and Economics & Chemical Technology.
Section 1 (Physical Chemistry):
Structure, Kinetics, Equilibrium, & Surfaces and Interfaces.
Section 2 (Inorganic Chemistry):
Main Group Elements, Bioinorganic Chemistry, Transition Elements, Lanthanides and Actinides, Radioactivity, Organometallics, Solids & Instrumental Methods of Analysis.
Section 3 (Organic Chemistry):
Stereochemistry, Organic Synthesis, Heterocyclic Compounds, Reaction Mechanisms, Pericyclic Reactions and Photochemistry, Biomolecules & Spectroscopy.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Civil Engineering (CE)
Section 1 (Engineering Mathematics):
Linear Algebra, Calculus, Probability and Statistics & Numerical Methods, Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE), Partial Differential Equation (PDE).
Section 2 (Structural Engineering):
Engineering Mechanics, Solid Mechanics, Structural Analysis, Concrete Structures, Steel Structures, Construction Materials and Management
Section 3 (Geotechnical Engineering):
Foundation Engineering & Soil Mechanics
Section 4 (Water Resources Engineering):
Hydrology & Irrigation, Fluid Mechanics, Hydraulics
Section 5 (Environmental Engineering):
Municipal Solid Wastes & Noise Pollution, Water and Waste Water, Air Pollution,
Section 6 (Transportation Engineering):
Highway Pavements, Transportation Infrastructure, & Traffic Engineering.
Section 7 (Geomatics Engineering):
Principles of surveying, Remote sensing & Photogrammetry.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Computer Science and Information Technology (CS)
Syllabus of CS will be covering all important topics of the BE/B.tech curriculum.
Engineering Mathematics (Discrete Mathematics, Linear Algebra, Calculus, Probability), Digital Logic, Algorithms, Programming and Data Structures, Theory of Computation, Computer Organization and Architecture, Compiler Design, Operating System, Computer Networks & Databases
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Ecology and Evolution (EY)
Mathematics and Quantitative Ecology, Ecology, Evolution, & Behavioural Ecology.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Electrical Engineering (EE)
GATE electrical engineering syllabus contitute of many core topics. All these topics are listed below.
Electric Circuits, Electromagnetic Fields, Signals and Systems, Engineering Mathematics (Linear Algebra, Numerical Methods, Transform Theory), Electrical Machines, Power Systems, Control Systems, Calculus, Differential equations, Complex variables, Probability and Statistics, Digital Electronics & Power Electronics, Electrical and Electronic Measurements & Analog.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Electronics and Communications (EC)
Engineering Mathematics, Analog Circuits, Digital Circuits, Networks, Signals and Systems, Electronic Devices, Control Systems, Communications & Electromagnetics.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Geology and Geophysics (GG)
Common Section:
Earth and Planetary system, Introduction to remote sensing, Weathering and soil formation, Principles and applications of gravity.
Geology:
Geomorphic processes and agents, Crystallography, Principles of Stratigraphy, Cosmic abundance of elements, Igneous rocks, Mechanism of rock deformation, Engineering properties of rocks and soils &Physicochemical conditions of metamorphism, Morphology
Geophysics:
The earth as a planet, different motions of the earth, Elements of Earth’s magnetic field, Scalar and vector potential fields, Absolute and relative gravity measurements, Basic concept of EM induction in the earth Conduction of electricity through rocks & Geophysical signal processing.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Instrumentation Engineering (IN)
Engineering Mathematics (Linear Algebra, Calculus, Differential equations, Analysis of complex variables, Digital Electronics, Probability and Statistics, Numerical Methods), Electrical Circuits, Control Systems, Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation, Communication and Optical Instrumentation.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Mathematics (MA)
Algebra, Linear Algebra, Complex Analysis, Numerical Analysis, Functional Analysis, Real Analysis, Probability and Statistics Ordinary Differential Equations, Partial Differential Equations, Topology, & Linear programming.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Mechanical Engineering (ME)
Section 1 (Engineering Mathematics):
Linear Algebra, Calculus, Probability and Statistics Differential equations, Complex variables, & Numerical Methods.
Section 2 (Applied Mechanics and Design):
Engineering Mechanics, Vibrations & Machine Design, Mechanics of Materials & Types of Machines
Section 3 (Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences):
HeatTransfer, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics & Applications.
Section 4 (Materials, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering):
Engineering Materials, Machining and Machine Tool Operations, Casting, Forming and Joining Processes, Metrology and Inspection, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Production Planning and Control, Inventory Control & Operations Research.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Metallurgical Engineering (MT)
Engineering Mathematics (Linear Algebra, Calculus, Vector Calculus, Differential equations, Probability and Statistics, Numerical Methods), Thermodynamics and Rate Processes, Extractive Metallurgy, Physical Metallurgy, Mechanical Metallurgy & Manufacturing Processes.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Mining Engineering (MN)
Section 1 (Engineering Mathematics):
Linear Algebra, Probability and Statistics, Calculus, Vector Calculus, Differential equations, & Numerical Methods.
Section 2 (Mine Development and Surveying):
Mine Development & Mine Surveying.
Section 3 (Geomechanics and Ground Control):
Geomechanics, Ground Control &Engineering Mechanics
Section 4 (Mining Methods and Machinery):
Mining Methods and Mining Machinery.
Section 5 (Surface Environment, Mine Ventilation, and Underground Hazards): Mine Ventilation, Surface Environment, and Subsurface Hazards.
Section 6 (Mine Economics, Mine Planning, Systems Engineering): Mine Planning , Mine Economics, and Systems Engineering.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Petroleum Engineering (PE)
Probability and Statistics, Linear Algebra, Calculus, Petroleum Exploration, Oil and Gas Well Drilling Technology, Petroleum Formation Evaluation, Differential equations, Complex variables, Numerical Methods, Reservoir Engineering, Petroleum Production Operations, Offshore Drilling and Production Practices, Oil and Gas Well Testing, Health Safety and Environment in Petroleum Industry, Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques & Latest trends in Petroleum Engineering.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Physics (PH)
Mathematical Physics, Electromagnetic Theory, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Classical Mechanics, Quantum Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics, Solid State Physics & Electronics, Nuclear and Particle Physics
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Production & Industrial Engineering (PI)
Section 1 (Engineering Mathematics):
Linear Algebra, Probability and Statistics, Calculus, Differential equations, Complex variables, & Numerical Methods.
Section 2 (General Engineering):
Engineering Materials, Theory of Machines and Design, Applied Mechanics, Thermal and Fluids Engineering.
Section 3 (Manufacturing Processes I):
Casting, Polymers and Composites, Metal Forming, Joining of materials, Powder processing
Section 4 (Manufacturing Processes II):
Machine Tools and Machining, Computer Integrated Manufacturing & Nontraditional Manufacturing.
Section 5 (Quality and Reliability):
Metrology and Inspection, Reliability, Quality management, and Maintenance.
Section 6 (Industrial Engineering):
Product Design and Development, Facility Design & Work System Design
Section 7 (Operations research and Operations Management):
Operation Research, Production control & Project management, Engineering Economy and Costing,
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Textile Engineering and Fibre Science (TF)
Engineering Mathematics (Linear Algebra, Calculus, Vector Calculus, Differential Equations, Probability and Statistics, Numerical Methods), Yarn manufacture, Yarn structure and Properties, Textile Fibers, Fabric manufacture, Structure and Properties, Textile Testing & Chemical processing.
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Engineering Science (XE)
Engineering Mathematics (XEA):
This section is Mandatory for all XE candidates.
Probability and Statistics & Numerical Methods, Linear Algebra, Calculus, Vector Calculus, Complex variables, Ordinary Differential Equations & Partial Differential Equations
Fluid Mechanics (XEB):
Flow and Fluid Properties, Kinematics, Differential Analysis, Inviscid flows,Integral analysis, Dimensional analysis, Internal flows, Prandtl boundary layer equations.
Materials Science (XEC):
Processing of Materials, Properties of Materials (Mechanical Properties, Electronic Properties, Magnetic Properties, Thermal Properties, Optical Properties), Characterization Techniques, Structure and Imperfections, Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Material types, Environmental Degradation, Elements of Quantum Mechanics and Mathematics.
Solid Mechanics (XED):
Equivalent force systems, Axial, shear and bending moment diagrams, Stresses and strains, Free vibration of single degree of freedom systems.
Thermodynamics (XEE):
Basic Concepts, Properties of Pure Substances, First Law of Thermodynamics, Second Law of Thermodynamics, Thermodynamic Relations, Thermodynamic Cycles, Ideal Gas Mixtures.
Polymer Science and Engineering (XEF):
Chemistry of high polymers, Polymer Characterization, Polymer Technology, Polymer rheology Synthesis and properties, Polymer blends and composites, Polymer processing, Polymer testing.
Food Technology (XEG):
Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Food Products Technology & Food Engineering, Food Microbiology, Atmospheric
Ocean Science (XEH):
Ocean Sciences & Atmospheric Science
GATE 2019 Syllabus of Life Science (XL)
Chemistry (XLP):
Atomic Structure and Periodicity, Structure and Bonding, s, p and d Block Elements, Reaction Kinetics, Thermodynamics, Chemical Equilibria, Electrochemistry, Organic Reaction Mechanisms & StructureReactivity Correlations
Biochemistry (XLQ):
Organization of life, Enzyme kinetics including its regulation and inhibition, Cell structure and organelles, Biochemical separation techniques, DNA replication & Immune system.
Botany (XLR):
Plant Systematics, Physiology and Biochemistry, Plant Anatomy, Morphogenesis & Development, Genetics, Plant Breeding and Genetic Modification, Plant Pathology, Economic Botany, Ecology and Environment.
Microbiology (XLS):
Historical Perspective, Methods in Microbiology, Microbial Taxonomy and Diversity, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells: Structure and Function, Chemotherapy/Antibiotics, Microbial Growth, Control of Microorganisms, Microbial Metabolism, Microbial Diseases and Host Pathogen Interaction, Microbial Genetics & Microbial Ecology.
Zoology (XLT):
Animal world, Evolution, Genetics, Animal Anatomy and Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cell Biology, Development Biology, Gene expression in Eukaryotes, Parasitology and Immunology, Ecology & Animal Behaviour.
Food Technology (XLU):
Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Food Microbiology, Food Products Technology & Food Engineering.
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